Ann Combs

Ms. Combs is a principal and head of Vanguard Government Relations. She and her team actively participate in policy discussions with lawmakers about new developments in the industry and offer expertise to help shape federal policy. Before joining Vanguard, Ms. Combs was the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Labor for Employee Benefits Security (EBSA) from 2001 to 2006. She had a pivotal role in formulating the Pension Protection Act of 2006. Earlier in her career, Ms. Combs was vice president and chief counsel for pensions and retirement at the American Council of Life Insurers and a principal of Mercer. She earned a B.A. from the University of Notre Dame and a J.D. from George Washington University.

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Visit institutional.vanguard.com to obtain a prospectus or, if available, a summary prospectus, which contains investment objectives, risks, charges, expenses, and other information; read and consider it carefully before investing.

Investments in bond funds are subject to interest rate, credit, and inflation risk.

Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss.

Foreign investing involves additional risks including currency fluctuations and political uncertainty.

Stocks of companies in emerging markets are generally more risky than stocks of companies in developed countries.

All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest.

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